Epikouros out-of Samos
Epikouros regarding Samos (lived 341 – 270 BC), whoever name is tend to Latinized since Epicurus, was a Hellenistic Greek philosopher therefore the eponymous inventor of Greek philosophical college or university off Epicureanism. The newest Epicureans believed that the new gods didn’t come with involvement anyway in person products and you will was basically recognized for the doubt out-of states out-of supernatural phenomena.
You really have likely viewed it quotation related to Epikouros. It’s the quintessential famous phrasing of the Problem of Worst available:
This might not at all times suggest anything, due to galerÃa de sitios de citas latinas the fact majority of everything Epikouros wrote might have been destroyed
“Is actually the guy [i.age. God] willing to avoid worst, however able? next are the guy impotent. Is actually he able, not happy? next is he malevolent. Are the guy each other in a position and you can ready? whence next is evil?”
Something is definite that’s one Epikouros yes never ever displayed the latest Epicurean trilemma with this specific wording. The new trilemma was showed with this particular text by the Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume (lived 1711 – 1776) in his publication Dialogues concerning Pure Religion, which was completed in 1776 shortly just before Hume’s demise and you can published posthumously within the 1779. Exactly why this phrasing of the trilemma can be misattributed so you’re able to Epikouros is simply because Hume credited the latest disagreement alone so you’re able to Epikouros and individuals seem to misinterpreted him, considering he had been truly quoting Epikouros rather than paraphrasing.
ABOVE: Portrait coated inside 1754 by Allan Ramsay of the Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume, the actual author of brand new style of the latest very-named “Epicurean trilemma” that’s often cited to your misattribution so you can Epikouros
Hume centered their breakdown of your Dilemma of Evil on the a beneficial description throughout the very early Christian apologist Lactantius (stayed c. 250 – c. 325 Post) from inside the part thirteen, verses twenty because of twenty-one of is own treatise De- Ira Dei (“Towards Wrath regarding Jesus“). Lactantius produces, given that interpreted from the William Fletcher:
“However, if this membership is true, that the Stoics had been inside no styles able to see, you to definitely dispute and regarding Epicurus is accomplished aside. God, according to him, both would like to distance themself evils, which is not able; or He’s in a position, in fact it is reluctant; otherwise He’s neither willing neither ready, or They are one another ready and ready. In the event the He or she is willing that’s incapable, He is feeble, that’s not according to the reputation out-of Jesus; if the He’s able and unwilling, He or she is envious, that’s just as from the difference which have Goodness; in the event that He’s none ready neither ready, He’s both envious and you may feeble, and therefore maybe not God; if He could be each other willing and you can in a position, hence alone is appropriate so you’re able to Goodness, about what origin following are evils? Or how does The guy not remove them? I am aware a large number of the fresh new philosophers, just who defend providence, are used to be disturbed by this dispute, as they are nearly motivated against the usually so you’re able to accept you to definitely Goodness takes no interest in one thing, hence Epicurus particularly aims at.”
Zero conflict whatsoever along these lines you to happens in some of the fresh new extant blog out of Epikouros. We only have about three from Epikouros’s letters (i.e. the brand new Letter so you’re able to Menoikeus, new Letter to help you Pythokles, plus the Letter to Herodotos) as well as 2 collections away from quotations out of his today-destroyed really works (i.e. the principle Doctrines plus the Vatican Sayings).
Epikouros you can expect to for this reason enjoys hypothetically shown a quarrel across the lines off what Lactantius describes in one of their functions that are not any longer extant, instance his treatise To your Gods, which the 3rd-millennium Offer Greek biographer Diogenes Laertios praises among Epikouros’s greatest works, or their treatise On the Character, that’s proven to has actually spanned thirty-eight quantities, but which merely survives in the fragments. However, it will boost suspicion one Lactantius will not say hence treatise Epicurus is supposed to have said it within the.